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Name-based Virtual Host Support - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4








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Apache > HTTP Server > Documentation > Version 2.4 > Virtual HostsName-based Virtual Host Support

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    This document describes when and how to use name-based virtual hosts.

 Name-based vs. IP-based Virtual Hosts
 How the server selects the proper name-based virtual host
 Using Name-based Virtual Hosts
See alsoIP-based Virtual Host SupportAn In-Depth Discussion of Virtual Host MatchingDynamically configured mass virtual hostingVirtual Host examples for common setupsComments


Name-based vs. IP-based Virtual Hosts

    IP-based virtual hosts use the IP address of the connection to
    determine the correct virtual host to serve.  Therefore you need to
    have a separate IP address for each host.

    With name-based virtual hosting, the server relies on the client to
    report the hostname as part of the HTTP headers.  Using this technique,
    many different hosts can share the same IP address.

    Name-based virtual hosting is usually simpler, since you need
    only configure your DNS server to map each hostname to the correct
    IP address and then configure the Apache HTTP Server to recognize
    the different hostnames. Name-based virtual hosting also eases
    the demand for scarce IP addresses. Therefore you should use
    name-based virtual hosting unless you are using equipment
    that explicitly demands IP-based hosting.  Historical reasons for
    IP-based virtual hosting based on client support are no longer
    applicable to a general-purpose web server.

     Name-based virtual hosting builds off of the IP-based virtual host
    selection algorithm, meaning that searches for the proper server name
    occur only between virtual hosts that have the best IP-based address.



How the server selects the proper name-based virtual host

    It is important to recognize that the first step in name-based virtual
    host resolution is IP-based resolution.  Name-based virtual host
    resolution only chooses the most appropriate name-based virtual host
    after narrowing down the candidates to the best IP-based match.  Using a wildcard (*)
    for the IP address in all of the VirtualHost directives makes this
    IP-based mapping irrelevant.

    When a request arrives, the server will find the best (most specific) matching
    <VirtualHost> argument based on
    the IP address and port used by the request.  If there is more than one virtual host
    containing this best-match address and port combination, Apache will further
    compare the ServerName and ServerAlias directives to the server name
    present in the request.

    The default name-based vhost for an IP and port combination 
     If no matching ServerName or ServerAlias is found in the set of
    virtual hosts containing the most specific matching IP address and port
    combination, then the first listed virtual host that
    matches that will be used.


Using Name-based Virtual Hosts

Related ModulesRelated DirectivescoreDocumentRootServerAliasServerName<VirtualHost>

    The first step is to create a <VirtualHost> block for
    each different host that you would like to serve.  Inside each <VirtualHost> block, you will need at minimum a
    ServerName directive to designate
    which host is served and a DocumentRoot
    directive to show where in the filesystem the content for that host
    lives.

    Main host goes away
         Any request that doesn't match an existing <VirtualHost> is handled by the global
        server configuration, regardless of the hostname or ServerName.

         When you add a name-based virtual host to an existing server, and
        the virtual host arguments match preexisting IP and port combinations,
        requests will now be handled by an explicit virtual host.  In this case,
        it's usually wise to create a default virtual host
        with a ServerName matching that of
        the base server.  New domains on the same interface and port, but
        requiring separate configurations,  can then be added as subsequent (non-default)
        virtual hosts.
    

    ServerName inheritance
        It is best to always explicitly list a  ServerName in every name-based virtual host.
       If a VirtualHost doesn't specify 
       a ServerName, a server name will be 
       inherited from the base server configuration.  If no server name was 
       specified globally, one is detected at startup through reverse DNS resolution
       of the first listening address.  In either case, this inherited server name
       will influence name-based virtual host resolution, so it is best to always
       explicitly list a  ServerName in every
       name-based virtual host.
    

    For example, suppose that you are serving the domain
    www.example.com and you wish to add the virtual host
    other.example.com, which points at the same IP address.
    Then you simply add the following to httpd.conf:

    <VirtualHost *:80>
    # This first-listed virtual host is also the default for *:80
    ServerName www.example.com
    ServerAlias example.com 
    DocumentRoot /www/domain
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName other.example.com
    DocumentRoot /www/otherdomain
</VirtualHost>


    You can alternatively specify an explicit IP address in place of the
    * in <VirtualHost> directives. For example, you might want to do this
    in order to run some name-based virtual hosts on one IP address, and either
    IP-based, or another set of name-based virtual hosts on another address.

    Many servers want to be accessible by more than one name. This is
    possible with the ServerAlias
    directive, placed inside the <VirtualHost> section. For example in the first <VirtualHost> block above, the
    ServerAlias directive indicates that
    the listed names are other names which people can use to see that same
    web site:

    ServerAlias example.com *.example.com


    then requests for all hosts in the example.com domain will
    be served by the www.example.com virtual host. The wildcard
    characters * and ? can be used to match names.
    Of course, you can't just make up names and place them in ServerName or ServerAlias. You must
    first have your DNS server properly configured to map those names to an IP
    address associated with your server.

    Name-based virtual hosts for the best-matching set of  <virtualhost>s are processed 
    in the order they appear in the configuration.  The first matching ServerName or ServerAlias is used, with no different precedence for wildcards
    (nor for ServerName vs. ServerAlias).  

    The complete list of names in the VirtualHost
    directive are treated just like a (non wildcard) 
    ServerAlias.

    Finally, you can fine-tune the configuration of the virtual hosts
    by placing other directives inside the <VirtualHost> containers. Most directives can be
    placed in these containers and will then change the configuration only of
    the relevant virtual host. To find out if a particular directive is allowed,
    check the Context of the
    directive. Configuration directives set in the main server context
    (outside any <VirtualHost>
    container) will be used only if they are not overridden by the virtual host
    settings.



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CommentsNotice:This is not a Q&A section. Comments placed here should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either implemented or considered invalid/off-topic. Questions on how to manage the Apache HTTP Server should be directed at either our IRC channel, #httpd, on Freenode, or sent to our mailing lists.

Copyright 2014 The Apache Software Foundation.Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.
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